History

Location of Nigeria

Location of Nigeria

‏      Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa.

Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial.

However, Nigeria’s most diverse feature is its people.

Hundreds of languages are spoken in the Nigeria, including Yoruba, Igbo, Fula, Hausa, Edo, Ibibio, Tiv, and English.

The country has abundant natural resources, notably large deposits of petroleum and natural gas.

The National capital is Abuja, which was created by decree in 1976.

Lagos, the former capital, retains its standing as the country’s leading commercial and industrial city.

 

Modern Nigeria dates from 1914, when the British Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were joined.

The country became independent on October 1, 1960, and in 1963 adopted a republican constitution but elected to stay a member of the Commonwealth

Land

Nigeria is bordered to the north by Niger, to the east by Chad and Cameroon, to the south by the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean, and to the west by Benin.

 

Nigeria is not only large in area—larger than the U.S. state of Texas—but also Africa’s most populous country.

Relief

In general, the topography of Nigeria consists of plains in the north and south interrupted by plateaus and hills in the centre of the country.

The Sokoto Plains lie in the northwestern corner of the country, while the Borno Plains in the northeastern corner extend as far as the Lake Chad basin.

Gently undulating plains, which become waterlogged during the rainy season, are found in these areas.

The characteristic landforms of the plateaus are high plains with broad, shallow valleys dotted with numerous hills or isolated mountains, called inselbergs;

the underlying rocks are crystalline, although sandstones appear in river areas.

The Jos Plateau rises almost in the centre of the country; it consists of extensive lava surfaces dotted with numerous extinct volcanoes.

Other eroded surfaces, such as the Udi-Nsukka escarpment (see Udi-Nsukka Plateau), rise abruptly above the plains at elevations of at least 1,000 feet (300 metres).

Continent

Africa

Region

West Africa

Coordinates

9.0820°N 8.6753°E

Area

Ranked 31st

Total

923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi)

Land

98.59%

Water

1.41%

Coastline

853 km (530 mi)

Borders

Total land borders:

4,047 km (2,515 mi)

Cameroon:

1,690 km (1,050 mi)

Niger:

1,497 km (930 mi)

Benin:

773 km (480 mi)

Chad:

87 km (54 mi)

Highest point

Chappal Waddi

2,419 m (7,936 ft)

Lowest point

Atlantic Ocean,

0 m (0 ft)

Longest river

Niger River,

1,111.88 km (691 mi)

Largest lake

Kainji Lake

1,243 km2 (480 sq mi)

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

Natural disasters 

draught, bush fire, landslide

Environmental issues

air pollution, water pollution, oil spillage, lead exposures, poor waste management, deforestation, desertification, erosion, flooding

Exclusive economic zone

217,313 km2 (83,905 sq mi)

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